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|Drug Name and Strength||Frusemide 10 mg/mL|
|Indication||Aid in the treatment of oedema in dogs and cats, including oedema associated with congestive heart failure, pulmonary oedema and localised oedema associated with trauma or surgery.|
|Contraindications||Administration to animals with evidence of impaired renal or hepatic function, or when neomycin is being administered.|
|Actions||Frusemide inhibits the ability of the kidney to concentrate and dilute urine appropriately. Known as a loop diuretic, frusemide effectively removes fluid from tissues. It is used in a variety of conditions including congestive heart failure, pulmonary oedema, liver and kidney disease, some conditions associated with high blood pressure, and localised oedema.The net effect of frusemide administration is an increase in water, sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, magnesium, hydrogen, ammonium and bicarbonate excretion and increased renin secretion. Frusemide also generally increases and redistributes the total renal blood flow. Extrarenally, frusemide administration leads to increased venous compliance and a decrease in right atrial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure and pulmonary blood volume. The effects on blood flow, both renally and extrarenally, appear to be related to prostaglandins, and these effects are dependent on normal prostaglandin production and blood volumes.Frusemide is absorbed mostly from the upper gastrointestinal tract and oral bioavailability can be variable. It can be up to 99% protein bound, which limits glomerular filtration of the medicine. Fifty to 60% of the medicine is excreted unchanged in urine and the remainder is conjugated to glucuronic acid in the kidney, liver or extrahepatic sites.Frusemide is actively excreted into the kidney tubular lumen and produces natriuresis and diuresis. Natriuresis is most pronounced only on the first dose. Frusemide is not categorised as a potassium sparing diuretic.Plasma half-life is biphasic, with a terminal half-life of 1.5 hours. Half-life is prolonged with renal insufficiency and it binds to excessive albumin in the urine, requiring dosing instructions to be adjusted in these situations.As well as natriuresis and diuresis, frusemide also increases venous compliance and decreases right atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary arterial volume. Frusemide appears to enhance prostaglandin formation, potentially resulting in increase in systemic venous capacitance and subsequent decrease in left ventricular filling pressure. This effect appears to be dependent on a functioning kidney and uninhibited prostaglandin production.Frusemide is Pregnancy Category C: can affect the fetus, use only if the benefits outweigh the risks. Frusemide is also excreted into breast milk. Frusemide can be given with food.|
|Warnings||Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs block the action of frusemide.|
|Precautions||Monitor electrolyte balance with prolonged use. Tolerance to the effects of frusemide in long-term use has been described.First Aid If poisoning occurs, contact a doctor or Poisons Information Centre. Phone Australia 131 126.|
|Dosage and Administration||Give orally in divided doses. Cats. 0.1 to 0.2 mL/kg bodyweight daily. Dogs. 0.2 to 0.4 mL/kg bodyweight daily.|
|Storage||Store below 30°C (room temperature).|
|MSDS (external link)||Flusapex Drops 25ml MSDS|
|Label (external link)||Flusapex Drops 25ml Label|
|Manufacturer||Apex Laboratories Pty Ltd|